Medieval Europe’s ‘divine obsession’ with Indonesian spices
Medieval Europe’s irrational craving for South Asian spices has largely shaped Indonesia – and the world – as we know it today.
It is fair to say that people across the globe are more familiar with the Silk Road trade route than that of the Spice Trail. Aside from being a fascinating and complicated story, the Spice Trail has also left its mark on the contemporary life of Indonesia and the world. Starting from a few centuries before Christ (BC), spices have been traded from South Asia to the Middle East and Europe through Arab and Chinese middlemen. According to historian JJ Rizal, with technological advancements, particularly in cartography and astronomy, in the 15th and 16th centuries, European explorers such as the Italian Christopher Columbus and the Portuguese Vasco da Gama braved the unknown to discover for themselves the places from which these spices originated. The purpose was to seize control of the commodities so that they no longer needed middlemen. The expeditions were very aggressive, ambitious and, sometimes, delusional. Jack Turner writes in his book Spice: the history of a temptation (2004) that “for the sake of spices, fortunes were made and lost, empires built and destroyed and even a new world discovered.” He continues, however, that “to modern eyes, it might seem a mystery that spices should ever have exerted such a powerful attraction.” Looking back, those European did have a reason behind the obsession. “Due to the social structure of medieval Europe, which was highly feudalistic, all worldviews were dictated by that of the palace, kings and aristocrats. If you owned the expensive spices, you would be counted as part of the elites,” he explained. The European elite at that time did not only use spices to preserve foods; they also incorporated spices into their lifestyle to enhance the originally bland taste of their wines and to be used as fragrances — spices were even believed to have a potent power as an aphrodisiac. He added that the potent power of spices had somehow been mystified through literature, Greek mythology and religious works, perpetuating the aspiration to own spices as a denotation of social class among Europeans. The abovementioned public relations practice of ancient times – similar to how we sell products today – could explain why explorers sacrificed even their lives for spices. Hundreds of da Gama’s crew died in a 1498 expedition. Similarly, Giles Milton writes in his book Nathaniel’s Nutmeg (1999) that in 1527, Hugh Willoughby with his crew froze to death in around 1554 as they traversed the North Pole to find a shortcut to the “spiceries” of Southeast Asia. European traders eventually arrived in Indonesia in the late 16th and early 17th century, trading nutmegs, cloves and mace as their “trinity” of the most expensive and luxurious spices in Europe. No wonder: the spices were available only in the Banda Islands of Maluku. During these centuries, many Indonesian kingdoms and sultanates had been able to turn their economic resources into intellectual ones by educating their people, thereby helping them to reach their glory days. The Sriwijaya kingdom in Sumatra, Banten province, as well as the Gowa sultanate in Makassar, South Sulawesi, were among them. The glory days, unfortunately, did not last long. Around 50 years after the spices were discovered and cultivated in Europe, their worth declined steeply, forcing the Dutch to exploit other commodities, such as sugar and tea. Furthermore, Dutch traders were given political authority by the Netherlands and soon found themselves involved in internal conflicts among local kingdoms as they lent local royals support under certain deals. The long history of spices that has shaped the country and many parts of the world deserves more recognition. During the Spice Trail era, three Indonesian spices found only in the Banda Islands became the stars of the trade: nutmeg, clove and mace. Aside from this “trinity” of spice, pepper – which came from India to Indonesia – was also heavily traded at that time. Below are brief explanations taken from the journal about these four spices: NUTMEG AND MACE (Myristica fragrans) Nutmeg most probably originated in Indonesia from the southern Moluccan islands, especially Ambon and Banda. The first record in Europe, in Constantinople, dates from 54 AD. By the end of the 12th century, nutmeg became generally known to Europeans. It is sold whole or grounded to be used mostly for savory dishes, pickles and ketchups. Nutmeg’s essential oils contain bactericidal, fungicidal and insecticidal activities, which was why it was used by Europeans to preserve food. CLOVES (Syzygium aromaticum) First cultivated in Maluku and New Guinea, cloves have been traded since China’s Han dynasty in around 200 BC. Stories about the trade and spread of cloves are full with intrigue and violence. Apart from pepper, no other spice may have played a comparable role in world history. Clove has been used to flavor food and for medical purposes. It suppresses bad breath and soothes toothaches while acting as a stimulant. Nowadays, more than 90 percent of cloves are used with tobacco to manufacture cigarettes. PEPPER (Piper nigrum) Native of Western Ghats of Kerala State, India, it reached Indonesia as early as 100 BC, brought by Hindu colonists. Pepper has been used to flavor and preserve foods. The use of pepper for food has increased in the last few decades, particularly in Indonesia and Malaysia, thanks to tourism and industrial development This article was published in thejakartapost.com with the title "Medieval Europe’s ‘divine obsession’ with Indonesian spices". Click to read full article: https://www.thejakartapost.com/adv/2017/07/21/medieval-europes-divine-obsession-with-indonesian-spices.html.